Composition of ship electrical system

Time of issue:2024/02/21

The composition of ship electrical system is divided into three main parts: ship power station, ship power grid, and electrical load. According to their roles in the system and the nature of the load, they can be further divided into nine types of devices and systems: (1) ship power systems; (2) Ship electric propulsion equipment; (3) Ship electric propulsion equipment; (4) Ship lighting system; (5) Internal communication and liaison devices of ships; (6) Ship navigation device; (7) Ship radio communication equipment; (8) Ship automation equipment; (9) Special devices, such as magnetic protection and demagnetization devices. The ship power system includes two major parts: ship power stations and ship power grids, which are responsible for converting different forms of energy into electrical energy and distributing it to various electrical equipment. The ship's electrical energy system includes: (1) a generator set composed of a prime mover and a generator; (2) Distribution equipment (main distribution board) that controls, monitors, and protects various electrical appliances; (3) A power grid composed of wires and cables. The ship's power system has some main parameters that determine the types and specifications of the main electrical equipment on board. These parameters are: electrical system (AC or DC), voltage, frequency. A ship power station is composed of a prime mover, a generator, and auxiliary equipment (combined into a generator set) and a distribution board. A generator set is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy, which is controlled and distributed through a distribution board. The prime mover that drives the operation of a generator is generally a diesel engine, steam turbine, or gas turbine, and the corresponding generator set is called a diesel generator set, steam turbine generator set, or gas turbine generator set. In order to ensure continuous, reliable, economical, and reasonable power supply for ships under various working conditions, such as navigation, operation, berthing, emergency, etc., multiple power stations are often installed on ships. (1) The main power station is a power station that normally supplies power to the entire ship. (2) A mooring power station is a power station that provides power to the electrical load of a anchored vessel when there is no shore power supply. (3) Emergency power station is a power station that provides power to loads necessary for ensuring ship safety in emergency situations. (4) Special power stations, such as providing power to all ship's wireless communication equipment (such as transmitters and receivers), various navigation aids (radar, direction finding instruments, depth sounders, etc.), onboard communication equipment (such as telephones, broadcasting, etc.), and signal alarm systems. The characteristic of this type of electrical equipment is that it has a small power consumption, but it has special requirements for the voltage, frequency, voltage stability, and frequency stability of the power supply. Therefore, sometimes specialized generator sets or inverter devices need to be installed on board to supply power to the weak current equipment or specialized equipment of the entire ship. The electrical energy of the ship's power grid is transmitted through cables from the main distribution board (as well as emergency and mooring distribution boards), passes through intermediate distribution devices (such as district distribution boards and distribution boxes), and is sent to various electrical users, forming the ship's power grid. The basic requirement for ship power grid is strong vitality, which requires the grid to ensure continuous power supply to the load in the event of faults or local damage, and to limit the development of faults and limit their impact to a small range. The electrical equipment on ships with similar properties are powered by corresponding separate power grids, which can be divided into: (1) the ship's power grid, directly powered by the main distribution board, and supplying various ship auxiliary machinery with electric propulsion. (2) Lighting grid, providing internal and external lighting for ships. (3) Weak current device power grid, including electric transmission bell, rudder angle indicator, telephone equipment, fire alarm signal and alarm bell, etc. (4) Emergency power grid, including emergency lighting, emergency power (such as servo power), power supply for navigation equipment, etc. (5) Other device power grids, such as charging devices, portable lights, etc.

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